Grinding is a thermally dominated process. If done incorrectly, it can lead to surface damage to the work material, and unsatisfactory process economics due to inadequate removal rates and/or excessive wheel wear. Power consumed by the process flows into the wheel, work, chip, and coolant. The energy that enters the workpiece must be removed quickly to prevent high local temperatures and phase transformations from developing, and to prevent high residual temperatures after the wheel has passed by. Phase transformations are often responsible for tensile residual stresses, white layer formation, reduced fatigue life, cobalt leaching, and surface and subsurface cracking. Cooling is achieved by the application of a cooling and lubricating fluid, as well as by selecting process parameters that reduce heat generation.